‘R’ – The point of definition of mean time. As it is directly opposite to mean Sun, in Equinoctial, its position is that of mean Sun plus or minus 12 hours of R. A. Like ‘E’ it is no longer quoted in the Nautical Almanac.
R with three numerals – Range or distance in NM.
Rabbet – Cut-away part in stern, sternpost or keel of a wooden vessel, for bottom planking to fit into.
Race – A strong directional current, often with overfalls. A competition between two or more vessels primarily determined on the overall speed achieved over a measured distance.
Racing – Rapid revolution of propeller and engines when ship’s stern lifts out of water, or when a large wave falls away from the propeller.
Rack – Wood or iron frame with belaying pins, sheaves or blocks. 2. Old form of ‘wrack’ or ‘wreck’. To seize two ropes parallel, with cross-turns.
Rack Bar – Name sometimes given to the bar used in a Spanish windlass.
Rack Block – Several sheaves fitted into one block of wood and used as leads for running gear.
Racking – Binding together two ropes by passing a smaller rope alternately over and under each of them. 2. The smaller rope used when racking. Is the distortion of the vessels shape in a transverse section caused by the accelerations on the ships structure due to rolling.
Racon – A radar transponder beacon (often on a buoy) that transmits an identity trail when activated by a searching ships radar beams.
Radar – RAdio Detection And Ranging. 2. Electronic system by which the bearing and distance of an object are found by the emission of a radio pulse, an observation of the direction of its return and the measurement of the time elapsed between emission and return.
Radar Beacon – A radio transmitter transmitting signals at radar frequencies which can be received and identified by a ship’s radar set. See Racon.
Radar Reflector – Arrangement of flat metallic surfaces set at right angles to each other which reflect radar signals back from whence they came. Used to improve the reflective power of small objects.
Radar Simulator – Electronic apparatus, used in training, by which simulated echoes of ships or coastline are made to appear and move upon radar displays.
Raddle – To interlace yams to form a gasket.
Radiant Heat – Heat transmitted in form of electro-magnetic waves, and not by conduction or convection.
Radiation – Emission of energy, such as light or heat, in the form of electromagnetic waves that do not heat the medium through which they pass.
Radiation Fog – Fog occurring on clear nights when relatively warmer air passes over an area of rapidly cooling earth.
Radiation Pressure – Pressure of radiant energy on a unit area. The pressure of sunlight on Earth is about 2 Ib. per square mile.
Radio – General name for methods of signalling or communicating through space by electro-magnetic waves.
Radio Aids – Term that includes all radio signals and emissions that can be used in navigational practice.
Radio Beacon – A radio station which sends out special signals for reception by a ship’s radio direction finder, the bearing of the radio beacon being thus obtained.
Radio Bearing – The direction towards a transmitting radio signal.
Radio Compass – Directional radio receiver calibrated to indicate the direction in which a radio wave approaches.
Radio Direction Finder (RDF) – A radio receiver dedicated to receiving low frequency radio beacons. It is fitted with a rotating antenna (often a loop) to establish the direction of a transmitting station from the radio.
Radio Direction Finder –. Instrument for detecting a radio signal and for indicating the relative bearing on which it is received.
Radio Time Signal – Time signal broadcast by radio.
Radiolaria – Minute creatures having a spherical, or conical, body from which small filaments project.
Radiolarian Ooze – Deep-sea deposit containing minute skeletons of radiolaria. Forms sea bed of large areas of Pacific and Indian Oceans at depths of 2000 to 5000 fathoms.
Radiosonde – Small compact radio transmitter attached to a free balloon for the purpose of obtaining upper air observations.
Radius Vector – Line from a pole, or focus, that fixes position by measurement of angle between vector and a primitive. In astronomy, is a straight line connecting a planetary body with Sun.
Radome – A bun-shaped cover placed over a radar scanner to prevent risk of fouling and to protect it from the weather.
Raffee – Triangular sail set above square topsail.
Raft – Floating structure made for life-saving purposes in shipwreck. 2. Timber or logs fastened together for transport by water.
Raft Port – Timber Port. Square opening, in end of ship, for loading long timber.
Rafting – Overlapping of edges of two ice-floes, so that one floe is partly supported by the other. Securing vessels alongside each other.
Rag Bol –. Bolt having jagged cuts across shank, to prevent bolt working out after being driven in.
Ragworm – A carnivorous marine worm used for bait.
Rail – Top of bulwarks. 2. Curved timber going from bow to support knee of head.
Rail Mounted Gantry – A crane used for container stacking operations on a wharf.
Rail of the Dead – Name sometimes given to ‘Rail 2’.
Rain – Precipitation of water in drops greater than 0.5 mm in diameter.
Raise – To initiate, as ‘Raise a bottomry bond’. 2. To cause to appear above horizon, as ‘Raise the land’ or ‘light’. 3. To dispose rope and blocks in such a manner that a purchase is obtained—’Raise a purchase’. 4. To sail towards an object so that its altitude increases.
Raise a Purchase – See ‘Raise Tacks and Sheets’.
Raise Tacks and Sheets – Order given when tacking a square-rigged ship. As ship moves through wind, tacks and sheets are kept adjusted so that sail is kept filled and does not go aback.
Raised Deck – An elevated full width forward deck providing cabin headroom below.
Rake – Inclination, in fore and aft line, of a mast, funnel, stem, stem post, or other nearly vertical member. 2. Inclined shape of after edge of a rudder. 3. To fire projectiles fore and aft along deck of an enemy vessel.
Raker – Gun so placed as to rake an enemy vessel.
Rakish – Said of a mast, or other member, having a rake.
Rally in – To haul in quickly.
Ram – To strike a vessel with stem of one’s own ship. 2. Strengthened stem, or projecting forefoot, formerly fitted to warships for sinking enemy ship by ramming.
Ram Block – Wooden deadeye.
Ram Bow – A protruding below the water line bow, used by ancient warships to hole and sink enemy ships.
Ram Head – Special type of halyard block.
Ramark – A radar beacon which transmits continuously and thus shows its bearing on the display of a ship’s radar.
Ramberge – Long and narrow war vessel, propelled by oars and specially fitted for ramming. Corruption of ‘Ram Barge’.
Ramie – Egyptian cotton fibre used for making yacht ropes.
Ramline – Thin line, or cord, used for getting a straight line along a mast or spar.
Ramshorn Hook – Anchor-shaped hook on which two ends of a sling can be placed so that one end of sling goes not ride on other end.
Ran – Reel of 20 yards of rope. 2. Yarns coiled on a spunyarn winch.
Range – To sail parallel to a coast, shoal or other object. 2. The extreme limit at which a light will be visible to an observer with a given height of eye.
Range Alongside – To come close abeam of another vessel.
Range Finder – Instrument for indicating distance of an observed object. When the refracted images are aligned, by movement of prisms, the range is mechanically indicated.
Range Light – Name sometimes given to an additional, and optional, masthead light of a steamship. 2. American term for leading lights.
Range of Tide – Difference in height between any high (or low) water and either the preceding or succeeding low (or high) water.
Ranging Cable – Bringing cable on deck and laying it fore and aft in long bights. Sometimes done when preparing to anchor in deep water. Also, laying cable, in shackle lengths, on deck or dock bottom, for examination, refitting or survey.
Rank – Comparative station or rank of an officer. Related Article: Shipboard Organization: Seafarers’ Ranks, Duties and Salaries.
Rap – Skein of yam 20 fathoms long.
Rap Full – Said of a sail when fully distended by the wind. U. S. and Canada.
Rapaki – Masses of detached and uneven land ice met with in rivers and bays.
Raper’s Code – Signalling code, by use of flags, introduced by Admiral Raper, R. N., in 1828.
Rapson’s Slide – Type of steering-gear in which steering-chains are connected to a collar free to slide on tiller. Advantage is that leverage increases with angle of helm. Disadvantage is its tendency to walk back.
Ras – Arabic word, meaning ‘Head’, used in some star and geographical names.
Rasalhague – Star α Ophiuchi. S. H. A. 97°; Dec. N13°; Mag. 2.1.
Rasing Iron – Iron tool used for tearing out of old caulking.
Raster Scan – A type of radar display whose picture is produced as a digital analysis of contacts by the activation of pixels.
Rate – Old scale for classing of warships. Based on number of guns carried; first rate carried 100 or more guns; fifth rate carried 32 to 40. Lowest rate was ‘sixth’. 2. Rate of a chronometer is the amount it gains or loses in 24 hours.
Rate of Burning – The speed at which a fire consumes fuel.
Rateau Turbine – High-speed turbine of impulse type, and compounded for pressure.
Rating – Seaman other than an officer.
Rating a Chronometer – Determining its losing or gaining rate.
Ratio of Range – Factor expressing range of tide, at a given place, in arithmetical proportion to the range at a specified position.
Ratio of Rise – Factor expressing rise of tide at one position as compared with rise of tide at another position.
Ration – Stipulated amount of provisions for a specified period.
Rational Horizon – Great circle of celestial sphere, its poles being the zenith and nadir of observer. It follows that this plane passes through centre of Earth, and parallel to visible and sensible horizons.
Ratlines – Small ropes stretched horizontally between shrouds to form foot and hand holds when going aloft. Seized to forward and after shrouds, clovehitched around intermediate shrouds.
Ratlines – Small ropes stretched horizontally between shrouds to form foot holds when going aloft. Seized to forward and after shrouds, clove-hitched around intermediate shrouds.
Rattle Down – To fit ratlines to shrouds.
Razee – To cut down an upper deck of a vessel so that her depth is decreased. 2. A vessel that has had an upper deck cut down.
Reach – Straight stretch of water between two bends in a river or channel. A straight section of a river. Sailing a course with the wind on the beam and sails full, i.e.; broad reach, on the beam, close reach, slightly higher into the wind but without the sheets being close hauled.
Reach Rod – An extension arm connecting an above deck valve handle to a below deck valve. A remote shut off mechanism.
Reaching – Sailing with wind on beam.
Reaching Spinnaker – A flat-cut spinnaker that will not collapse when the vessel is reaching.
Reaction Rudder – Rudder so designed and shaped that effective use is made of the screw race.
Ready About – An order to prepare for the vessel to tack, followed by “lee ho” as she is steered over.
Ready to Load – State of a vessel when she is in a loading berth and is, in all respects, ready to load in all holds.
Reaming – Enlarging a hole by revolving a cylindrical cutting tool through it.
Rear Admiral – Flag officer in Royal Navy. Junior rank of admiral, being intermediate between Commodore and vice-admiral.
Rebate – Alternative form of ‘Rabbet’.
Receivers of Wreck – Officers appointed by Board of Trade to take charge of wrecks and wreckage on British coasts and to take necessary steps for the saving of life and property in peril.
Reciprocal Bearings – Compass bearings taken simultaneously at two different stations, the bearing of one station being the reciprocal of the bearing of the other. Frequently used in compass adjustment.
Reckoning – Computation by which the position of a ship is found.
Reconcile – Shipbuilding term meaning to join one member fairly with another so that the sweep is smooth. Especially applied to curves that reverse.
Record Book – A book used to record the daily navigation and maintenance of the vessel.
Rectifier – An electrical circuit to convert alternating current into direct current.
Rectilinear Stream – Tidal stream that runs alternately in approximately opposite directions.
Rector – Name given to the Master of a ship in 11th and 12th centuries.
Recurvature – Meteorological term for the change in direction of travel of a cyclonic storm. First direction is westerly, then towards elevated pole, finally easterly.
Red Duster – A somewhat affectionate nickname for the Red Ensign. Not approved universally.
Red End – Of magnet, is the north-seeking end.
Red Ensign – Red flag having Union flag at upper inner canton. is the proper ensign of British Merchant Navy.
Red Pole – Of magnet, is that end having same polarity as Earth’s south magnetic pole. It is usual to make an arbitrary assumption that lines of magnetic force emerge from this pole.
Red Squadron – Former division of a fleet of warships. Occupied the van of the line and flew a red pendant. Was commanded by the admiral. Discontinued.
Red Tide – A discoloration of the sea caused by toxic red dinoflagellates.
Redelivery Clause – Inserted in a time charter to specify time, place and circumstances of redelivery of a vessel on termination of a time charter; also defines compensation for non-fulfilment.
Reduced Chart – Old name for a chart constructed on a recognised projection, as distinguished from a plane chart.
Reduced Latitude – Angle between radius of Earth, at a given point, and plane of Equator. Spheroidal shape of Earth causes this to be less than the geographical latitude, except at poles and Equator.
Reduced Zenith – Point at which a line passing from centre of Earth, and through an observer, would meet celestial concave. The declination of this point would be less than declination of observer’s zenith.
Reduction – A ‘leading back’. Correction of an apparent position or value, to give a true position, or value.
Reduction Gearing – Mechanism by which a high-speed of rotation, in one unit, is converted to a lower speed, but greater power, in another unit.
Reduction of Latitude – Angular difference between the geocentric and geographical latitudes at any given point on Earth’s surface. Is maximum (11′ 44″) in lat 45°. It is subtractive from geographical latitude, or additive to geocentric latitude. Reduction may be looked upon as angle, at Earth’s surface, between a downward perpendicular and an extended radius of Earth at that point.
Reduction to Soundings – Calculation of the correction to be applied to a sounding taken in tidal waters so that it can be compared with soundings referred to a standard level of chart datum.
Reduction to the Meridian – The application of corrections to altitude of a heavenly body, observed when near meridian, so that its meridian altitude may be deduced.
Reed Boiler – Water tube boiler of Thornycroft type, but having tubes more curved.
Reed Valves – Flap valves that control the flow of vaporised fuel mixture from the carburettor into the crankcase of a small two stroke motor.
Reef – Ridge, or chain, of rocks near surface of the sea. That part of sail between head in square sails, and foot in fore and aft sails, and the first line of reef points. Also, part of sail between any two lines of reef points. To reduce a sail’s area by lashing a fold in it. A shoal of rock or coral.
Reef Band – Strip of canvas stitched to sail in way of reef points, for strengthening.
Reef Cringle – Cringle inserted in leech of sail to take block of reef tackle.
Reef Earing – Rope that secures upper corner of a reefed square sail to yard, or lower inner corner of reefed fore and aft sail to boom.
Reef Knot – Made with two rope ends so that bight of each part lies either over or under both parts of other rope. A knot to secure sails when reefing. A knot for ropes of similar sizes. Related Article: Can You Knot? 10 Widely Used Knots on Merchant Ships.
Reef Line – Small ropes rove through holes in reef band of a square sail and having ends on yards. Used for tricing up head of sail when reefing.
Reef Pendant – Tackle for hauling down leech of a fore and aft sail to the boom when reefing.
Reef Points – Lengths of small line secured to reef band of sail and passing through it. Used for confining reefed area of sail, and for securing reefed part of square sail to yard.
Reef Tackle – Small purchase for. heaving reef cringle of square sail to the yard when reefing.
Reefer – One who reefs a sail. As midshipmen were stationed in tops during reefing the name was applied to them. 2. Short, double-breasted jacket, as worn by midshipmen. 3. Ship principally designed to transport refrigerator or frozen cargos.
Reefer Box – An insulated shipping container.
Reefing – Reducing effective area of sail by gathering in a certain amount of it—at the head in square sails, at foot in fore and aft sails—and securing it by tieing reef points around.
Reefing Halyards Rope round the rolling spar of a patent reefing topsail.
Reefing Jackstay – Additional jackstay about five inches abaft proper jackstay of a yard.
Reel – Horizontal drum, with circular side plates, around which ropes and wires are wound for compact stowage, and for ready use. 2. Small wooden framework on which log line is reeled. Has an axle that extends on either side, for reelman to hold when the log is streamed.
Reeler – Man whose duty is to reel up line of ship log as it is hauled in. Name also given to man who holds the reel.
Reeve – To pass end of a rope through a block, thimble or other opening.
Reeving – Forcing open seams inside of a wooden ship so that caulking can be inserted.
Reeving Beetle – Heaviest mallet used by caulkers.
Reeving Iron – Wedge-shaped tool, of steel or iron, used when reeving.
Reference Climate Station (RCS) – A weather station collecting long term data (not less than thirty years) for determining climatic trends.
Refit – Removal of worn or damaged gear and fitting of new gear in replacement.
Reflecting Circle – Instrument of the sextant type but having a limb graduated through 360°. Besides being able to measure large angles it has the further advantage that, by reversing the instrument, two observations can be taken — in opposite directions — and any error of the instrument will cancel out when the mean of the two values is taken. Invented by Mayer in 1744. Improved by both Troughton and Borda.
Reflecting Sector – Name given to a sextant, quadrant or octant to differentiate it from a reflecting circle.
Reflecting Telescope – Telescope in which the image is enlarged by increasing the angle of the rays from it by the use of paraboidal mirrors.
Reflection – A throwing back of light rays, or heat rays. Sometimes applied to sound waves. 2. An image that is observed through reflection.
Refloat – To float again. In Elizabethan days it often meant a ‘flowing back’.
Refracting Telescope – One in which the enlargement of the image is obtained by the use of lenses that refract rays from an observed body through an angle larger than that subtended at the naked eye.
Refraction – Deflection, or bending, of a ray of light, heat or radiant energy, as it passes from surface of one medium into another medium of different density.
Refrigerant – A gas/liquid material used in refrigeration systems to absorb heat from the refrigeration plant.
Refrigerator Ship – See reefer.
Regatta – A series of sail races; a water carnival.
Regatta – Originally, a gondola race; now, a gathering of yachts or boats for racing.
Register – Written document or book in which specific information is entered. Specifically applied to a ship’s ‘Certificate of Registry’.
Register Tonnage – Measurement of a ship, based on internal capacity, as entered in her Certificate of Registry – A ship’s accreditation listing ownership and nationality. A tackle of double and single blocks rove with an endless line used to relieve the strain on the steering in heavy weather/emergency.
Registrar – One whose duty is to keep a register or record. Chief Officers of Customs are usually registrars of shipping.
Registration of Ship – Legal procedure by which a vessel acquires British nationality on building, or by transfer.
Regression – Backward movement of Moon’s nodes around Ecliptic. Amount is nearly 19° 20′ each year, so that this backward circle repeats every 18.6 years. This is considered in tidal prediction.
Regulus – Star α Leonis. S. H. A. 208°, Dec. N12°; Mag. 1.3. Name is Latin for ‘Petty King’.
Relative Bearing – Direction of an observed object when expressed as an angle with ship’s fore and aft line.
Relative Coarse – Course steered by another ship when expressed as the angle that course makes with course of one’s own ship.
Relative Humidity – Humidity of atmosphere when expressed as a percentage of the humidity of saturated air.
Relative Magnitude of Star or Planet – Classification of its brightness compared with other stars as viewed from Earth, thus differing from ‘absolute’ magnitude. Is expressed as a number, which increases as brightness decreases. Stars of 6th magnitude and below can be seen with naked eye. Luminosity of any star is 2.512 times that of a star one above it in relative magnitude.
Relay – To signal or communicate. An electrical signalling (switching) device. To transfer containers from one ship to another.
Release – To set free. In engineering, is applied to the moment when steam is first allowed to escape from cylinder. In ship’s business, means a discharge from a contracted undertaking. To release a ship is to withdraw all opposition to her sailing or movement. To release cargo is to authorise its removal from ship.
Release Note – Document authorising Master to deliver cargo to holder of the note.
Relief – A shaped surface. A clearance behind a cutting tool’s edge to reduce friction.
Relief Valve – A connection used in piping or hoses which is forced open by fluid pressure to avoid any dangerous build up of pressure.
Relieving Gear – Any attachment to a rudder, tiller or quadrant, that damps and minimises the variations in stresses on tiller connections when a vessel is in a seaway and, particularly, when stem and rudder are rising and falling in the sea.
Relieving Tackle – Relieving gear consisting of two tackles, one on either side of tiller, having a continuous rope rove through both tackles; standing blocks of each tackle being attached to ship. Any effect of sea on rudder causes one tackle to render, and the other to heave. Friction of fall through sheaves damps shock on steering connections.
Remberge – ‘Ramberge.’
Remora – Fish, about 8 inches long, that attaches itself, by suction, to a ship’s underwater body for transport. Fairly common in Mediterranean Sea.
Render – Said of rope when it yields to excessive stress by surging or slipping. Also said when it passes freely through a block or opening. To give or supply. To pass a rope through a component. To cover a surface with a thin coating such as cement.
Repatriation of Seamen – The sending of a seaman to a proper return port in his own country. See Distressed British Seamen.
Repeater – A ‘Repeating ship’.
Repeating Circle – See ‘Reflecting Circle’.
Repeating Ship – Frigate, or small craft, formerly detached from the battle line to repeat admiral’s signals from a position in view of all ships.
Replacement Clause – Inserted in a policy of marine insurance to limit liability of insurers to the replacement of a damaged part of machinery, and not the whole machine.
Report List – Document describing ship and cargo, list of passengers and stores, together with particulars of any navigational danger sighted during voyage. Signed, in duplicate, by Master and presented to Customs authorities when entering inwards.
Reporting Day – Day on which a vessel reports her readiness to load or unload cargo. May, or may not count as a lay day.
Reprize – Vessel recaptured after being taken by enemy. If recapture within 24 hours of capture was returned to former owner; if after 24 hours of capture, was property of ship recapturing.
Request Note – Application to Customs authorities for permission to remove goods liable to duty.
Resaca – Spanish name for ‘Underset’.
Rescue – The safe removal of persons or domestic animals from threatened danger of physical harm and deliver them to a place of safety.
Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) – A country’s prime facility that promotes responsible and efficient SAR services and organization.
Research Vessel – A vessel designed for oceanographic/fisheries research.
Reserve Buoyancy –The freeboard of a vessel; the amount of buoyancy in a hull that remains after it has been loaded.
Respondentia – Contract in which a master of a ship pledges freight and cargo as security for a loan of money necessary to enable vessel to reach her discharging port.
Respondentia Bond – Legal document whereby Master pledges freight and cargo when raising respondentia.
Restraint of Princes – Commands of a sovereign state, whether friendly, neutral or enemy — that result in the non-fulfilment of an intended voyage.
Restricted in her Ability to Manoeuvre (RAM) – A vessel which from the nature of the work is restricted in her ability to manoeuvre as required by the Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.
Restricted Visibility – Any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms or any other similar causes.
Restrictive Endorsement – Endorsement of a bill of exchange so that its negotiation is limited and circumscribed.
Retard of Tide – Interval between conjunction, or opposition, of Sun and Moon and the appearance of the resultant spring tide at a place.
Retardation – A slowing up. A lateness of arrival. Opposite to acceleration.
Retentivity – The power of steel or iron to retain magnetism. This power is more or less proportional to their resistance to being magnetised.
Retrograde Motion – Movement of a heavenly body in a direction opposite to that of Earth’s rotation and Sun’s annual revolution;the Right Ascension and celestial longitude of the body will then decrease. A few solar system bodies—comets and some satellites—have this motion. Retrograde movement of a planet is an optical illusion arising from Earth’s orbital movement.
Return Cargo – A cargo which enables a ship to return loaded to the port where her previous cargo was loaded.
Return Port – The proper return port of a discharged seaman.
Return Tubes – Those fire tubes, in a marine boiler, that return the fuel gases from the combustion chamber to the front of boiler.
Revenue Cutter – Small sailing vessel, cutter rigged and armed, manned by Royal Navy and used for prevention of smuggling and for maintaining order on the fishing grounds. Superseded by mechanically-propelled fishery protection vessels.
Reversal – Difference in directions of surface and upper winds when exceeding 90°.
Reverse Curve – A concave curve in the bottom at the chine. The usual purpose is to deflect spray.
Reverse Laid – Said of ropes having yarns and strands laid up in the same direction. Sometimes called ‘unkinkable’ lay.
Reversed Frame – Angle bar riveted to inboard edge of a frame so that its flange is in a direction opposite to that of the frame.
Revetment – A retaining wall.
Revolving Storm – High wind flowing around an area of low pressure. Also called a ‘cyclone’.
Rhodings – Brass bearings for axle of a pump wheel. Rhumb. Line on surface of Earth, that cuts all meridians at a constant angle that is other than a right angle. A loxodromic curve.
Rhumb Line – A straight line between two charted positions.
Rhumb Line – Any part of a rhumb as projected on a chart.
Rhumb Line Sailing – Method by which a course and distance along a rhumb is converted into the resultant change in latitude and longitude.
Ria – An inlet of shoaling sea water formed from a flooded river valley.
Rib – A bent or laminated piece of timber that forms the skeleton in a vessel’s construction. It is part of the hull framing to which the plank is fastened. Also called timbers.
Rib and Truck – Name given to a parrel made up of large, spherical wooden spheres threaded on rope. Three to five of these are usual, being separated by thin wooden ‘ribs’.
Riband – ‘Ribband.’
Ribband – Temporary horizontal strips of fir nailed to ribs of a wooden vessel, when being built, to maintain the ribs in their place while planking is fastened.
Ribband Carvel – Carvel build, but with wooden strips covering seams on inner side of the vessel.
Ribband Lines – Oblique fore and aft sections of a vessel.
Ribband Shore – Supporting strut from building slip to rib of a vessel under construction.
Ribbing Nail – Large round-headed nail used for fastening ribbands.
Ricker – Stem of a young tree. Used for making shaft of boathook, mast or spar in boat, or for dunnage.
Ride – To yield to a sea or swell. 2. To bear down with full weight of the body.
Ride at Anchor – To be anchored.
Rider – An additional rib on inside of sheathing of hold of a wooden vessel. 2. A second tier of casks or barrels. 3. A riding turn of rope.
Rider Bar – In steel vessel construction, a reinforcing bar that is attached along the top of a girder.
Ridge –. Longitudinal area of high barometric pressure. 2. Longitudinal extent of a raised part of sea bed.
Ridge Rope – Centre-line rope over which an awning is spread.
Riding a Try – Heaving to, in bad weather, and lying to the wind with only a trysail set.
Riding Bitts – Two strong bitts, in fore part of vessel, around which turns of cable can be taken.
Riding Chock or Bower Stopper – A device to assist in securing the anchor for sea. Normally only on larger vessels.
Riding Light – White all round light hoisted forward, by a vessel at anchor, from sunset to sunrise.
Riding Sail – Storm canvas set by ship when riding to a sea anchor.
Riding Slip – Short length of chain, attached to forecastle deck, having a slip shaped to clamp a link of chain cable. Generally used as a precautionary measure when riding at anchor.
Riding the Rigging – Coming down a stay or backstay in a boatswain’s chair that has a shackle around the stay or backstay. Usual when blacking down the rigging, or when working on it.
Riding Turn – Turn of a rope that rides over or across another turn or turns.
Rig – Manner or fashion in which a vessel’s masts, sails, and spars are fitted and arranged. 2. Type of a sailing vessel. 3. To fit out a vessel with necessary rigging. 4. To prepare or assemble an apparatus or gear. 5. The dress of a man.
Rig/Drilling, Rig/Oil Rig – A construction standing upon the seabed, but capable of being floated into position, used for drilling for, or extracting oil or gas. See Platform and Semi-Submersible.
Rigel – Star β Orionis. S. H. A. 282°; Dec. S8°; Mag. 0.3. Diameter is 38 times that of Sun; candlepower is 18, 000 times greater; distant 540 light years.
Rigger – Man who makes or fits rigging, or who assists in doing so.
Rigging – The ropes, wires, tackling and other furniture necessary for the working of a ship. 2. Shrouds and their ratlines. 3. The fitting and placing of rigging.
Rigging Screw – Bottle screw used for setting up wire rigging. A Warwick screw. 2. Steel screw clamp used for turning in end of wire ropes when splicing around a thimble.
Right a Ship – To bring a vessel upright after she has been listed or careened.
Right Ascension – Celestial equivalent of longitude, measured in hours anti-clockwise around the celestial equator, starting from the point where the sun moves northward across the equator annually (vernal equinox).
Right Hand Ordinary Lay (R.H.O.L.) – Wires laid left handed, strands laid right handed.
Right Knot – A reef knot.
Right of Search – Authority to search a vessel at sea.
Right of Way – Legal right of a vessel to maintain her course and speed when in the vicinity of another vessel.
Right Sphere – Terrestrial sphere as it appears to an observer at Equator. Circles of revolution of heavenly bodies are perpendicular to the horizon.
Right the Helm – To put the rudder amidships. See Also: Standard Helm Orders, Meaning and Execution.
Right Whale – The Greenland whale. The largest of the baleena whales, 45 to 50 ft. long. Called this because it was the right sort to catch as it provided the largest quantity of oil and whale-bone.
Right-Handed – Said of a rope when strands trend to the right as one looks along it. Said of a propeller when upper edge of blade turns to starboard when going ahead.
Righting Lever – Leverage by which the force of buoyancy, acting on the metacentre of an inclined floating body, causes the body to turn until centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity are in same vertical line. Length of lever is the horizontal distance between perpendiculars passing through centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy.
Righting Moment – A mechanical lever formed between the force of weight acting vertically downward (from the centre of gravity) and the displaced force of buoyancy on heel acting upward (from centre of buoyancy on heel). It is a measure of a vessel’s ability to return to the upright after heeling. It is termed the GZ lever and is calculated as a weight times a distance (a moment)
Rigid Inflatable Boat (RIB) – Having a solid bottom supporting inflatable tubes.
Rigil Kentaurus – Star α. Centauri. S. H. A. 141°; Dec. S61°; Mag. 0.1. It is, excepting Sun, the star nearest to Earth. Its diameter is about that of the Sun, but its candle power is 1.2 times greater. Distance is 4.3 light years. Also called ‘Proxima Centauri’, ‘Alpha Centaurus’, ‘Rikent.
Rigol – Small, curved angle bar over a scuttle in ship’s side. Placed to prevent entry of water when scuttle is open and water is running down side. Sometimes called ‘Eyebrow’.
Rim – Notched plate, of capstan or windlass, in which a pawl can engage. 2. ‘Top Rim.’
Rime – Hoar frost or frozen dew.
Ring – Ring or shackle in inboard end of anchor shank for attachment of cable. See Also: Parts of an Anchor and Its Windlass Arrangement.
Ring Compressor – See ‘Compressor’.
Ring Rope – Rope with one end made fast to a ring bolt; used for backing up another rope that is under heavy stress.
Ring Sail – Small sail set on a short mast, at taffrail, in fair weather.
Ring Stopper – Used for maintaining control of a wire rope that is being run out. Length of small chain has one end made fast to a ring bolt, the other end being led over the wire and back through the ring. By hauling on end of chain, wire is nipped.
Ring Tail – Small sail set abaft leech of spanker in the same manner as a studding sail is set on a square sail.
Ringbolt – Bolt secured to vessel and carrying a loose ring to which a block, tackle or rope can be attached.
Riots and Civil Commotion Clause – Included in a policy of marine insurance to relieve insurers of liability for loss due to strikes, labour disturbances, riots and suchlike.
Rip – To tear old caulking out of a deck seam.
Ripping Iron – Tool used for tearing old caulking out of a seam. 2. Tool for removing sheathing boards and copper sheathing from a ship’s bottom.
Ripple – Small curling wave, or ruffling of surface of water.
Rips – Current running seaward on a beach. Overfalls.
Rise – To come above the horizon.
Rise of Floor – The amount by which the line of the outer bottom plating amidships rises above the base line, when continued to the moulded breadth lines at each side.
Rise of Tide – Height of sea level above chart datum when due to tide-raising forces.
Rising – Stringer, in a boat, on which thwarts rest.
Rising Floor – Floor timber, that rises, fore and aft, above plane of midship floor.
Rising Glass – Said of barometric pressure when indicated by rise of mercury in a barometer.
Rising Line – Curved line, on draughts of a ship, showing heights of floor timbers throughout the vessel.
Rising Square – Square marked with height of rising line at any part of the ship.
Rising Wood – Timber worked into seat of a floor and into keel, for steadying the keel.
Risk – The chance that one or more hazards will cause something to happen that will have a detrimental impact upon safety. It is measured in terms of the likelihood, duration of exposure and consequences of injury, illness or environmental damage.
Risk Assessment – The process of evaluating the probability and consequences of injury, illness or environmental damage arising from exposure to identified hazards associated with an operation.
Risk of Collision – Exists when two vessels are so situated that a collision will be inevitable unless one vessel, at least, takes avoiding action.
River Gunboat – Small warship, carrying a fairly large gun, having a broad underwater body and a shallow draught. Formerly used in Chinese rivers and other inland waters. Related Article: Types of Warships in a Naval Fleet.
Rivet – A metal pin pushed through matching holes drilled through two or more plates that is hammered into a domed head at each end in order to squeeze the plates together.
Rivet Spacing – Pitch of rivets. Roach. Curvature of foot of a square sail, or leech of fore and aft sail.
Roach – The convex curve at a sail’s edge that often extends its area outside a straight line from clew to head.
Roads – Open anchorage adjacent to a port.
Roadstead – See roads.
Roadstead/Roads – Sheltered water with good holding ground, in which ships may anchor and ride safely.
Roaring Forties – Strong westerly winds prevailing south of latitude 40°S. Sometimes applied to the latitudes in which the winds prevail.
Robands – Short lengths of sennit plaited round head rope of square sail for securing sail to the jackstay.
Robins – Variant of ‘Robands’.
Robinson’s Disengaging Gear – Releasing gear for ship’s boats. Boat’s falls are held by hinged hooks fitted in the slings. On release of a tackle these hooks are free to open upwards and allow boat to drop into the water.
Rocker – A curved keel shape that is lower in the middle than the ends, facilitating tacking.
Rockered – Said of a keel whose lower edge is a downward curve and not a straight line.
Rocket – Pyrotechnic projectile used for signalling, or for life-saving purposes. Sometimes used for establishing connection with another vessel.
Rocket Apparatus – Line-carrying rockets and apparatus for firing them and aligning them so that a line can be carried to a wrecked vessel in the vicinity of the shore.
Rode – The extent of cable that a vessel is anchored by.
Rogue’s Yarn – Coloured thread inserted in each strand of a rope issued by H. M. Dockyards. Colour varies according to the dockyard issuing the rope. Indicates that the rope is Admiralty property.
Roll – Rhythmic inclination of a vessel from side to side when in a seaway.
Roll Cumulus – Name given to cloud when disposed in long parallel rolls.
Rolled Section – Sectional shape of a steel bar or girder when the shape was imparted as the bar passed through the rolling mill.
Roller – Long, smooth, swelling wave, often without crest, not generated by a prevailing wind. Roller Jib – See ‘Du Boulay Roller Jib’ and WykehamMartin.
Roller Fairlead – An arrangement with a pulley wheel to minimise chafing on lines pulled onto a vessel.
Roller Reef – A reef made by rotating the boom to which the foot of a sail is attached. This winds the sail round the boom like a roller blind.
Roller Reefing Gear – Various patented devices to furl a sail by rolling it up.
Roller Sheave – Sheave of a block when steel rollers have been placed round the pin to reduce friction. Rolling – See ‘Roll’.
Rolling Chock – A bilge keel. 2. Jaw of a yard, which steadies the yard as the ship rolls.
Rolling Hitch – A hitch that will slip easily in only one direction and can be used as a brake on the fall of a halyard.
Rolling Period – Period of roll. Time, in seconds, taken by a vessel to roll from one side to the other.
Rolling Tackle – Extra tackle extending from near slings on masts to weather quarter of a yard. Holds yard to mast when rolling to windward.
Rolling Test – An approximate method of calculating a vessels GM. GM in mtrs = ((F x breadth)x(F x breadth)) ÷ Time in secs F = 0.78 – 0.98 dependant on hull shape.
Roman Indiction – Number that denotes the position of a year in a system of 15- year periods, beginning 3 B. C.
Roman Winds and Directions – See classical winds.
Ron Finish – Finishing off of a ‘point’ in end of rope by forming a footrope knot over the heart.
Ron the Longitude – To sail along a meridian.
Roof Error – Error in sextant indication that is caused by refractive effect of glass roof of a mercury trough when using it as an artificial horizon.
Room and Space – Longitudinal distance between centre lines of ribs of wooden vessels; ‘room’ being width of rib, ‘space’ being distance between ribs.
Roomer – Elizabethan name for putting about before the wind. To ‘put roomer’ means ‘to wear’.
Rooming – The navigable water to leeward of a vessel.
Roost – Strong and turbulent current between Orkney and Shetland Islands.
Rooster Rail – A plume of water rising behind the propeller stream of a fast moving vessel.
Rooves – Small, annular pieces of copper that fit over nail ends in clincher-built craft; over them the nail end is flattened to form clinch.
Rooving Iron – Small implement for holding a roove over end of a clinch nail. Has a hole in centre so that nail can be driven through roove.
Ro-Pax – A vessel with combined Ro-Ro and passenger capacity.
Rope – Long and flexible lengths of wire, hemp, cotton, coir, leather and other materials laid up for the transmission of power and resistance, while maintaining form at any angle of bending. Size was expressed by the circumference of the rope in inches but it is now given as diameter in millimetres.
Rope Jack – Machine for laying up yarns and strands. Has circular framing with rotating hooks worked by a handle.
Rope Winch – Machine having three, or more, rotating ‘whirlers’ used for laying up the strands of a rope.
Rope Yarn – Single yarn laid up in same direction as that of the strands of a rope. Fibres that have been extracted from rope.
Rope Yarn Knot – Correct way of joining two yarns. Yarns are split and married; two opposite foxes, one from each yarn, are led round to form a reef knot.
Ropemaker’s Eye – Eye formed in end of hemp cable. End of cable was unlaid and two strands turned over to make the eye by splicing. Third end was turned over, and its ends wormed round cable. Eye was then marled and served.
Ropery – Establishment in which ropes arc made. 2. A ropewalk.
Rope’s End – End of a rope, or a short length of rope.
Ropewalk – Covered walk, 100 to 200 fathoms in length, in which ropes are laid up. Formerly, men walked backward while paying out hemp fibres whose ends were attached to rotating hooks at end of the ropewalk. This method has been superseded by the use of machinery.
Roping Needle – Stout needle used when sewing canvas to rope. Has a pointed end that curves upward from line of needle.
Roping Palm – Used when sewing canvas to roping. Indentations in the ‘iron’ are larger, and fewer, than those in a sailmaker’s palm.
Ro-ro – Roll On – Roll Off vessels. A ship type using a method of transportation in which vehicles and their loads are driven or towed onto and off a ship using its ramps. These vessels have built with doors in her ends or sides to allow, vehicles to drive on or off when berthed. Related Article: Types of Merchant Ships – How Many Do You Know?
Rorqual – Type of whale that raids fishing-grounds in practically all seas. It is not hunted, because its blubber yield is small.
Rose – Name given to a compass card, or other diagram, having radiating lines. 2. Strum.
Rose Box – Strum Box.
Rose Knot – Wall knot followed by crown knot, and each knot followed round; finished with a diamond knot, and ends tucked through centre.
Rose Lashing – Under and over lashing finished off with concentric turns around the crossings and between the turns.
Rosebur – Roove, or washer, over end of a clinched nail or fastening.
Rosie – Rubbish bin.
Rotary Stream Tidal stream that changes its direction through 360° in one cycle.
Rotator – Log unit having inclined vanes that cause it to rotate as it is drawn through the water.
Rotor Ship – Experimental ship of the 1920s. Propelled by wind-pressure acting on rotating towers.
Rotten Ice – Floes that have become honeycombed through melting.
Rough Log – Log-book kept, on deck, by officer of the watch.
Rough Tree – Shaped, but unfinished, mast or spar.
Rough Tree Rail – Timber resting on tops of frames and forming the upper part of a bulwark.
Round – To sail round a buoy, promontory or other fixed point, at a uniform distance, when changing direction.
Roundabout – A traffice separation scheme where ships and other traffic move in a counter-clockwise direction around a specific point or zone.
Round Bilge – A section of a vessel’s hull between the sides and the bottom that has a rounded shape.
Round House – Originally, the poop. Later, a square cabin amidships and abaft mainmast of a sailing ship.
Round In – To haul the fall of a tackle and close the distance between its blocks.
Round of Beam – See alternative term, camber.
Round Ribbed – Said of a vessel with curved tumble home.
Round Seam – Single seam used for joining two edges of canvas. Stitches are passed through at right angles to both surfaces, with 35 to 40 stitches to the foot.
Round Seizing – Put around two ropes when the strain is in the same direction on each. Seizing is secured to one rope, and seven round turns passed round both parts. End of seizing then passed up through these turns, and out under first turn. Six round turns then passed in cantlines of first turns, end passed between sixth and seventh lower turns. Round turn then taken across all turns, finishing off with a clove hitch, having first round turn inside the hitch.
Round Spliced – Splice made with flattened strands, so that splice will be circular in section.
Round To – To bring ship’s head to the wind.
Round Top – Circular platform near mast head.
Round Turn – Winding a line completely around an object to spread the pull of a rope across a larger surface area and enable greater control without jamming.
Round Turn and Two Half Hitches – A hitch which to secure to a ring.
Round Up – To head into the wind. To haul all the rope through so the blocks in a tackle come together.
Rounding – Altering course around a position and maintaining a pre-arranged distance from it. 2. Rope used for serving a larger rope. 3. Formerly, condemned running rigging less than four inches circumference.
Roundly – Quickly and smartly.
Rounds – Wooden rungs of a rope ladder.
Rouse – To haul on a rope or cable without any mechanical advantage. 2. To call out to work, to wake from sleep.
Rouse about Block – A large snatch block.
Routier – French name for an early book of sailing directions.
Rove – Past participle of ‘Reeve’. 2. Alternative form of ‘Roove’.
Rover – Pirate. Freebooter.
Rovings – Robands.
Row – To impel a boat by pulling on oars.
Row Boat, Rowing Boat – Boat propelled by oars alone.
Row Ports – Small ports, near waterline, used when propelling vessels by oars pulled between decks.
Rowl – Sheave of a single block. 2. Light crane for discharging cargo.
Rowlock – Opening in which an oar is pivoted when rowing. May be a cut away part in wash strake, or space between two thole pins.
Rowse – ‘Rouse.’
Royal – The square sail set above the course sails (lowest), lower topsail, upper topsail and topgallant of a sailing ship.
Royal (Sail) – Sail next above topgallant sail. Generally the upper sail on mast of a square-rigged ship.
Royal Mail Pendant – White pendant with a red crown over a post horn and the words ‘Royal Mail’ in red. Worn by vessels carrying Royal Mail under contract.
Royal Marines – The corp of soldiers who chiefly serve on board H. M. ships.
Royal Mast – Mast immediately above topgallant mast, being an extension of the topgallant mast.
Royal Observatory – Establishment in which time is ascertained and celestial movements and phenomena are observed and noted. At Greenwich from 1675 to 1943. Now at Herstmonceux Castle.
Royal Yacht Squadron – The Premier yacht club founded at Cowes in 1812; given title ‘Royal’ in 1820.
Royal Yard – Yard next above topgallant yard: carries royal sail.
Rub Rail –Rubbing strake. A protective longitudinal board along a hull to reduce damaged from wharf structures and other vessels.
Rubber – Steel block with rounded face and wooden handle. Used for rubbing down seams in canvas after they have been sewn. 2. ‘Rubbing Piece.’
Rubbing Paunch – Batten secured vertically on fore side of mast and over the hoops of a built mast. Prevents damage to yards by hoops, when yards are sent up or down.
Rubbing Piece – Raised wooden beading fitted horizontally around outside of boat. Takes chafe when boat is alongside.
Rubbing Strake – Doubled strake on outside of a boat. Acts as a rubbing piece, and can be renewed when worn.
Rubbing Wale – Alternative name for ‘Rubbing Piece’.
Rudder – That implement or fitting by which the direction of a vessel is controlled by steering. Almost invariably fitted at stern, and free to move through about 35° on either side. Hinged to stem post or rudder post—but occasionally balanced. See ‘Balanced Rudder’. Related Article: Types of Ship Rudders, Their Parts and Profiles.
Rudder Band – The bands on each side of a rudder blade to brace and tie attach it to the pintles. Alternative name for ‘Rudder Brace’.
Rudder Brace – Horizontal attachment to a rudder, carrying either a pintle or brace.
Rudder Breeching – Rope, more or less vertical, that takes part of weight of rudder off the gudgeons.
Rudder Case – ‘Rudder Trunk.’
Rudder Chains – Small chains shackled to rudder and led inboard and secured. Hold rudder should it become unshipped. Also, form alternative steering connections if steering chains part.
Rudder Chock – Wooden support for rudder when in dry dock.
Rudder Coat – Canvas cover attached to rudder stock where it emerges from a trunk. Prevents sea entering ship in heavy weather.
Rudder Frame – Streamlined frame to which plates of a double-plate rudder are fastened.
Rudder Head – Upper end of rudder stock, to which tiller is attached.
Rudder Hole – Opening in deck through which rudder head protrudes.
Rudder Iron – Brace or pintle of a rudder.
Rudder Pendants – Lengths of rope or wire measured and fitted so that rudder chains can be connected to tackles in an emergency.
Rudder Port – Casing, above helm port, through which rudder stock enters ship.
Rudder Post – Name sometimes given to stern post when rudder is attached to it. Vertical member of rudder, to which rudder blade is attached.
Rudder Stock – The rod which is attached to the rudder and is turned to rotate the rudder.
Rudder Stops – Projections on rudder, and, or, rudder post that prevent rudder being angled more than 38° (about).
Rudder Tackles – Tackles used for controlling rudder or tiller. Are connected to rudder chains, and used when steering connections to wheel break down.
Rudder Trunk – Casing extending from helm port to the deck on which the tiller or quadrant is situated.
Rule of the Road – Seaman’s usual name for the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collision at Sea.
Rumb – Old form of ‘Rhumb’.
Rumbo, Rumbowline – Outside yarns of old rope laid up again for use as lashings, and other purposes not demanding much strength.
Rummage – Originally meant ‘to stow cargo’. Now means ‘to search a ship carefully and thoroughly’.
Rummager – Originally, ‘one who stowed cargo’. Now, one who searches a vessel for undeclared goods and articles.
Run – Voyage between two ports, especially when regular. 2. Distance sailed between two observations, or epochs. 3. After part of the ship’s underwater body where it rises and sweeps towards stern post. 4. To sail with wind astern — or nearly so. 5. To deliver a ship, usually one way. For example to a repair yard.
Run Down – To collide with a vessel that is directly ahead. 2. To run east or west into a desired longitude.
Run On – The distance a vessel travels after disengaging propulsion (headreach).
Run Out – To put out a mooring, hawser or line from a ship to a point of attachment outside her. The ebb tide.
Runabout – A small undecked or partially decked powered craft. A small fast luxury powerboat with a highly varnished finish.
Rundle – Drum of capstan. 2. Round rung of a rope ladder.
Rung – Ground timber of frame of a wooden vessel.
Rung Head – Upper end of a ground timber.
Runlet – Small barrel usually containing 15 gallons, but may vary between 5 and 20 gallons.
Runnel – Depression running parallel along a beach.
Runner – Person whose duty is take messages. 2. A smuggler. 3. A person who solicits business on behalf of another. 4. Vessel that runs a blockade. 5. Tackle in which one end of rope is made fast and block runs on bight: nominal advantage being twofold. 6. Backstay which can be slackened or detached to avoid fouling the boom. Running Backstay. 7. Cargo runner, the wire on the winch barrel for lifting cargo.
Runner Tackle – Luff tackle attached to hauling end of a runner purchase.
Running – Sailing with wind astern, or nearly so.
Running Agreement – Made between Master and crew to allow more than one foreign voyage to be made without paying off. Expires at end of six months, or on vessel’s first arrival in United Kingdom after that period, with maximum period of two years.
Running Backstay – One of a set of variable tension stays that support the mast when forward pressure is exerted on the sails in running before the wind.
Running Block – That block, of a purchase, that moves in position as fall is veered or hauled. Usually called ‘Moving Block’.
Running Bowline – A bowline (loop) made in the end of a rope and around its own standing part.
Running by the Lee – Running under sail with the main boom on the weather side.
Running Days – Days that are counted successively and without any exception or interruption.
Running Down – Striking a vessel that is at anchor, or that has the right of way.
Running Down Clause – Institute Time Clause that defines liability of underwriters to owner of a ship that runs down another. Liability does not exceed three-quarters value of ship that runs down.
Running Fix – Determination of a ship’s position by taking a line of bearing, running a known distance, transferring first line to new position and crossing it with another position line. Related Article: Types of Marine Navigation – How Ships Find Their Way at Sea.
Running Free – Sometimes defined as sailing with wind abaft the beam, but not right aft.
Running Gear – All rigging, ropes and tackles that move, or are movable.
Running High – Said of a sea when waves are high. Said of a gyro compass when its indication is numerically higher than it should be.
Running Hook – One of the tack hooks a little off centre line of boat at stem. Tack of sail is put on it when running before wind.
Running Lights – Navigation lights used while under way and making way.
Running Moor – Anchoring by dropping first anchor while ship has headway, and letting go second anchor after she has gone farther ahead.
Running Part – Any part of a tackle that moves when worked—as distinguished from the standing part.
Running Rigging – All ropes rove through blocks and worked as may be necessary, as distinguished from standing rigging. All adjustable control lines on a vessel rig.
Running the Easting Down – Making easterly departure by running before a westerly wind.
Running Voyage – Old name for a wartime voyage when made independently and not in convoy.
Ruse De Guerre – Subterfuge to frustrate the enemy.
Russell’s Log – Early 19th-century towed log, of spiral type and made of copper.
Russian Sennit – Loose matting made by weaving several stands — or lengths of small rope — athwart and over and under their own parts.
Rust Bucket – An old ship that needs repairs.
Rutter – Common, but corrupted, form of ‘Routier’. A pilot’s notebook.