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Today’s technology is unstoppable. The era of autonomous cars and remote-controlled planes is dawning upon us. Shipping is of no exemption as major players are developing unmanned ships. Very soon, these vessels will sail in the not too distant future.

Why Replace the Human Element?

Maritime industry has a long history of disasters and defeats. Even with the latest technology available on board, accidents continue to happen. The environmental damage is lingering. Pollution cost and lost of human lives has plagued the seas for centuries.
Titanic, MT Dona Paz, Exxon Valdez, Princess of the Stars, MV Rena and the Costa Concordia are only a handful. They are infamous maritime disasters that turned the world’s attention to shipping.


Seafarers Are At Fault

Here’s a fact: human error contributes around 75% to 96% of marine accidents according to a research from Alianz Global. This means that huge sums of insurance claims are paid (and lost on the corporate side).

Accidents happening at sea shakes the world because everything is affected.

Yes, we all want cleaner oceans and safer ships to avoid losing the precious lives of our mariners. Some people think that vessel autonomy might be the solution.


Shortage of Seafarers

The maritime industry projects shortages of competent seafarers in the future. Many shipowners already started taking action years ago to fill this gap. They create cadetship programs like the Norwegian Shipowners’ Association (NSA), IMEC and other scholarship grants.

In Europe, there has been a decline of students taking seaman’s career. The seafaring workforce couldn’t keep up with the growth shipping industry. Even the entrance of women working on board today doesn’t fill that gap.


Machines Never Get Tired

People on board succumb to fatigue especially if the voyage is short and frequent. Rest hours and work hours are often the issue here. Less rest is often a contributing factor to human error.

Seafarers can only work efficiently for a certain number of hours. Without having enough rest affects their performance. For this reason, maritime authorities create strict regulations on rest and working hours. Vessel inspectors and coast guard personnel takes these rules very seriously.

But in cases with machines and equipment, they can function on a much longer with more up time than down time.


Smart and autonomous ship.

An Augmented Reality (AR) ship simulator set-up giving us a clue on how unmanned vessels will likely be oprerated from ashore. Source: MUNIN Project


Cost Saving Potential

Modern smart ships will employ less crew on board. This means a reduction of expenses related to crewing like seafarer’s wages. Provisions, insurance, crew changes, training, visas and welfare will also be cut.

Approximately 30% of a ship’s voyage costs are crew related. Minimizing the human factor on board can be cost effective. Replacing them with technology will preserve companies’ profit margin.

Moreover, these unmanned ships will likely run on natural gas. Thus, we can see a reduction in diesel and HFO costs. Besides, the latter is facing very tough rules on carbon emissions.


Why Unmanned Ships are Close to Reality Than You Think

I opened this topic to a few crewmates. As expected, they believe that unmanned vessels are still close to impossibility. On their view, this technology would take another century to develop.

Looking at the day to day operation of the ship down to the micro level, we can all say that the naysayers are right. But considering the recent tech advances, it all points to automation.


Machines Taking Over

Today, machines are replacing a few of our industries. There are robots building high-tech cars. In fact, driver-less vehicles now run around some major cities in the US and Europe.

You might already heard of unmanned space ships. People launch space crafts deep into outer space collecting rock samples. They also take photos with nobody on board.
Consider the stealthy military drones. They launch precision strikes to terrorist base from halfway around the world. Their pilots are safe in some remote locations while the drones take all the risk of getting shot.

I’ve been to a supermarket in La Coruna, Spain. They have a self service check out where you can pay your items in front of an automatic teller machine. They’re very easy to use and even grandpas can do it on their own.


If you come to think of it, the jobs of today already replaced the jobs of 100 years ago.


Automation On Board

In our own industry, commercial drones are now used to send documents to ships a few miles to the anchorage. And who would forget the phasing out of Radio Officers which were vital on board any ship.
We are all familiar with the operation of UMS or Unmanned Machinery Spaces in the engine room. A hundred years ago, who would think that engineers can leave the ER at night while they sleep in their cabins.

Then out came the full implementation of Electronic Chart and Information System (ECDIS). I know a lot of skeptics when this technology came out. In fact, I was one of them. But technology proved us wrong as time goes by. Many ships today use ECDIS as their primary means of navigation.

Early sailors talking about how machines are not capable of doing our jobs on board

Early sailors talking about how machines are not capable of replacing our jobs on board.


From the old sextant to LORAN to GPS and now DGPS, we have a clear idea of the trend here. Technology is helping the human element reduce the manning level of ships: 15 to 25 crew at the most. Compare that to a hundred seafarers in a single ship a hundred years ago.


Minor Developments

There are already unmanned surface vehicles in operation. Most of them are small boats that operate on the water surface. Researchers use them for oceanographic purposes and data collection.

Even the US navy utilizes autonomous drone ships for security purposes.

Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) dives deep into oceans for exploration and research missions. This technology has been in operation for many years.

Those applications may be small but today, big boys are joining the race. Companies are investing in the development of unmanned ships since years ago.


Major Players

In 2020, the first zero emission container ship Yara Birkeland  will be completed. This vessel from Norwegian shipbuilder Vard Holdings,will run full autonomy on 2022!

After acquiring Rolls Royce’s autonomous marine division for USD660M, Kongsberg has partnered with Wilhelmsen to develop unmanned technology for ships. The result of this partnership will first be fitted on board Yara Birkeland.


How unmanned ships will likely be designed and operated in the future.

How autonomous vessels will likely be designed and operated in the future.


Funded by the European Commission, the MUNIN Project or Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence in Networks came to life. Its objective is to examine the feasibility of unmanned vessels thru data gathering.

In March 2019, the Dutch Joint Industry Project conducted a series of operational trials off the Netherlands coast. The goal of that venture is to study the decision-making process of an autonomous system. They will use their research findings to enhance safe sailing and collision avoidance.

UK-based Rolls-Royce successfully launched the first fully autonomous ferry. It sailed between Parainen and Nauvo in Finland last December 2018.


US and Asia

Samsung Heavy Industries is also into the game. They’re investing in machine learning, virtual reality, augmented reality and database analytics. The result of that research will be used in building vessels with unmanned operation capability.

Similarly, Sea Machine Robotics, a Boston-based start up has partnered with shipping giant AP Moller Maersk. SMR will use one of Maersk’s vessel to install their advanced perception technology. they will also test and track its situational awareness capability.

Developing technology for unmanned ships. Intelligent concept from the start-up company Sea Machines Robotics.

Making vessels intelligent using technology created by Sea Machines Robotics.


China is setting up a huge 225-square mile test zone for crewless vessels in partnership with Wuhan University of Technology.

A group of Japanese shipping lines have formed a consortium to build remote-controlled cargo ships by 2025.


Do We Have The Technology?

While the rest of the world wait and watch, some companies are investing and creating a trend for unmanned vessels.

Technology such as machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality (VR) and big data analytics is available today. Together with lidar (light radar) and high sensitivity sensors, these machines will work hand in hand to replace most of human functions.

Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX and Tesla cars, plans to wrap the planet with thousands of artificial satellites. He aims to make internet connectivity available for everyone even when you are in the middle of the ocean.

And with the entry of 5G internet, the Internet of Things (IOT) could evolve in an unimaginable scale. While 4G connection gives us a maximum of 10 gigabit per second, 5G has a whooping speed of 20 gigabits per second at its peak!

Combine all these things and you have the infrastructure needed for unmanned ships.


Crewless or Crew Less?

While most of the hype portrays a crewless vessel navigating, docking and un-docking in port, there are actually four degrees of autonomy defined today.


Degree One

Ship with automated processes and decision support:

Seafarers are on board to operate and control shipboard systems and functions. Some operations may be automated and at times be unsupervised. However, seafarers on board are ready to take control.

Degree Two

Remotely controlled ship with seafarers on board:

The Captain controls and operates the ship from another location. Seafarers are  still available on board. Whenever emergencies happens, they are ready to takeover shipboard systems and functions.


Smart ship concept with augmented reality.

Smart ship concept with augmented reality.
Source: DNV-GL


Degree Three

Remotely controlled ship without seafarers on board:

The Captain controls and operates the ship from another location. There are no seafarers on board

Degree Four

Fully autonomous ship:

The operating system of the ship is able to make decisions and determine actions by itself.


The first and second level of autonomy still require the human presence. However, it may not be as many of them as we have today. A minimum number of crew having deep knowledge of the technology used will man the ship.

The third degree of autonomy replaces the human element on board and puts him in a remote location. Ships make their own decision and the person in charge only supervises its behavior. The “Captain” will take over the control if necessary.


Autonomous container ship design for the future.

Autonomous container ship design for the future.


Fourth autonomy gives the machine full control of the ship. She will be able to handle collision avoidance, vessel reporting and speed reduction. This crewless ship will also be capable of making course alteration and most day to day operations until she goes alongside.

Technicians may likely board for inspections during port stay or when emergencies happen.


For economic reasons, our government considers seamen as modern heroes in today’s age. But I guess these heroes are in need of saving.

May the winds be on your favor.



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